Quality goalkeepers are made from a different material than the rest of us. It takes a certain kind of person to voluntarily dive into the path of a soccer ball moving in excess of thirty miles an hour and deal with the pressure of being the last defender for 90 minutes.
What are the rules for goalies?
- Handle the ball for 6 seconds
- No picking up the ball from team-mate
- Goal kicks within the 6-yard box/goal area
- Keeper stays on the line for a penalty
- Handling the ball outside of the box is a freekick
I remember a game from my club soccer days when our goalie was out of town. I was a midfielder and thought that being a keeper would be pretty fun. I naively volunteered to take his place at kickoff. Fifteen minutes into the first half and down 3-0, I was pulled off to give someone else a try. As I walked to the sideline with slumped shoulders and head hanging, I remember the coach say jokingly ‘Rough day?’.
I gained a lot of respect for goalkeepers both for putting their bodies on the line each game as well as the knowledge required to play the position. This article will review the written laws for goalkeepers and share some insights and tips to assist you in playing the position.
- Goalkeeper Offences
- Goalkeeper Cannot Handle
- Offenses against the Goalkeeper
- The exception to Outfield Players
- Handling the Ball Outside of the Box
- Illegal Back Pass
- Denial of a Goal Scoring Opportunity
- Free Kicks
All players that enter the field of play must wear a;
- Shirt/jersey with sleeves – Different from oppositions goalkeeper, officials and outfield players
- Socks – Tape or material must be the same color as the garment it covers
- Shinguards – Made from suitable material and be worn behind socks
- Tracksuit bottoms- worn underneath shorts and the same color as the lowest part of shorts
- Undershirts – same color or pattern as shirt/jersey
- Goalkeeper cap
- Headcovers – for protection must be black or the same color as the shirt
- Supports – knees, arms, legs as a lightweight padded form of protection
- Sports spectacles – used for protection of the eyes
Different from field players, goalkeepers may wear pants with or without padding to protect the player’s legs when diving as well as padded caps to protect from head injuries in such a physically risky position. While all field players can wear gloves to protect skin from the elements, goalkeepers typically wear gloves with padding and materials to better grip the ball and metal or plastic braces behind the fingers to prevent sprains from occurring and the bones from breaking.
- Holding the ball for 6 seconds
This includes when the ball is on the ground and is touched by the keeper’s hand, held in the air or held against the body with one hand. If the ball is held for longer than 6 seconds an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposition. When the goalkeeper has gained possession, the opponent cannot challenge for the ball.
Goalkeeper Cannot Handle
- After 6 seconds, the goalkeeper drops the ball, it cannot be picked up again until it is touched legally by another player
- When the ball deliberately touched by a team-mate – it is considered a back-pass and an indirect freekick are given from the position that the ball is touched with the hands
- The ball is thrown by a team-mate on a throw-in
Offenses against the Goalkeeper
- Releasing the ball -The goalkeeper must be allowed to release the ball from their hands, otherwise, it is an offense and a freekick
- Allowed to distribute – The goalkeeper must be freely allowed to throw or kick the ball when in possession
- Dangerous play – in danger of injuring a player
- Blocking – preventing the goalkeeper from playing the ball
The exception to Outfield Players
When an outfield player is injured they must leave the field of play before they can be allowed back into play. For a goalkeeper, they can stay off the field.
Handling the Ball Outside of the Box
If the goalkeeper handles the ball outside fo the box it will result in a freekick and a caution if;
- Yellow card – if the handball stops a promising attack
- Red card – if the goalkeeper stops and obvious goalscoring opportunity
If the goalkeeper throws the ball directly into the opponents’ goal, a goal kick is awardedIFAB
As was the case with my team down 3-0 before the half, sometimes a change in keeper is necessary. This could be due to injury, performance, changing personnel due either to 1) the strengths of individual players or 2) shifting positions after the loss of a player because of a red card.
This past week in the Champions League, Manchester City had to substitute their starting keeper at halftime due to an injury. Late in the second half, their backup goalie was sent off for the denial of a goal-scoring opportunity and Kyle Walker, their outside back, had to take the backup’s jersey and gloves to play the remaining minutes of the game in goal. He held his ground well and kept the ball out of the back of the net to preserve his team’s result.
Whatever the reason for the change, the goalkeeper can be substituted off to make way for the replacement as normal or a field player can switch spots with them. This is done by notifying the referee who can hold play at the next stoppage at which point the swap can be made. If the players make the change without first clearing it with the head official, both will be given yellow cards at the next stoppage in play.
Changing Places with the Goalkeeper
Outfield players can change position with the goalkeeper as long as the referee is told before the game (this is to change the starting goalkeeper) or during the game, but it must be done during a stoppage in play.
Changing a Goalkeeper During a Penalty
If the goalkeeper is injured a substitution may take place before the penalty is taken
Also known as the 18-yard box, the penalty area is the source of great anxiety for defenders, keepers, and coaches alike. Games have been won, lost, and drawn in the dying moments of a game due to a handball or foul in the box. Keepers have the privilege of legally using their hands in this area in most cases.
The only exception to this rule is when the ball is deliberately kicked to the keeper by a teammate. If the keeper picks up this pass, an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team. Passes to the goalie played with the thigh, chest or head will not incur this penalty and play will continue without stoppage.
Illegal Back Pass
I’m reminded of a team I coached a few years ago. It was the second round of the state playoffs against a bitter rival. The score was tied at one goal each in the second period of overtime with minutes left to play until penalties. Our bracket operated with a golden goal in overtime, meaning the next team to score would win the game. An unsuccessful cross from the opposing team made its way through our penalty area with no opposing player nearby to cause a threat.
If the goalkeeper handles the ball when not allowed and indirect freekick is given and no caution is givenIFAB
I’m not sure if it was the heat of the moment or trying to be overly cautious with the game in such a precarious state, but one of our defenders and the goalkeeper were both going for the ball. Typically, the communication would have been made and the keeper would have controlled the ball. Instead, our defender nudged the ball toward our keeper just before she picked it up.
An indirect free-kick was awarded to the other team just yards from the mouth of the goal. They scored on the free-kick and we were knocked out of the tournament. A box is a dangerous place and it is important that constant and clear communication is kept between the goalie and their defenders when the ball is in or around the box.
Within the penalty area, there is the penalty spot and the goal area also known as the 6-yard box. When the ball rolls over the goal-line, a goal kick ensues. Goal kicks must be taken from within the 6-yard box. Opposing players must stay outside the penalty box until the ball is played by the goalkeeper.
Fouls committed by the defense within the penalty result in a penalty kick for the attacking team. The rules for a keeper have recently been revised to more specifically define the movements allowed by the keeper during the procedure of a penalty kick. This revision states that
“When the ball is kicked, the defending goalkeeper must have at least part of one-foot touching, or in line with, the goal line.”IFAB
- Touching the posts or crossbar prior to the kick is also prohibited
- The goalkeeper must not move off the line until the penalty is taken
- During a penalty shoot-out, the opposing goalkeeper not involved must stand on the goal line out of the penalty box
I remember watching a knockout round match between the Netherlands and Costa Rica in the 2014 World Cup. The Netherlands goalkeeper, Tim Krul was subbed on just before the game went into penalty kicks. He was brought on because of his size and the mind games he played with his opponents during spot-kicks.
He jumped up and down, slapping the crossbar with his hands and pointed to the places he thought the opposing player would shoot. These antics, though effective in that match, would not be allowed under the current rules. It is important to note the outcomes of the penalty kick change depending on when it takes place within the game.
If the penalty is taken during regulation or overtime periods if applicable, a blocked shot can be rebounded and scored by the attacking team. Only in penalty shootouts is the ball dead once it is blocked or is denied by the woodwork. Make sure to recognize the situation you’re in before the kick is taken to mitigate the possibility of misunderstanding.
Denial of a Goal Scoring Opportunity
One other thing to keep in mind is the potential for a denial of a goalscoring opportunity, commonly referred to as a DOGSO. A DOGSO is commonly called when the last defender or goalkeeper fouls an attacking player or commits a handball offense to prevent a goal.
This is punished with a red card to the guilty party as well as a penalty kick if the foul is committed within the penalty area. It’s hard to predict when a one-on-one will occur but recognizing that conceding a goal is better than going down a player and gifting the opponent a penalty kick. Be wise in the decisions you make in those situations.
Free kicks are great goal-scoring opportunities for attacking teams. It is important to note if the kick will be direct or indirect. Direct kicks can be scored without the ball touching another player while indirect free kicks must be touched by at least two players prior to entering the goal. If an indirect free kick is scored without being touched by more than one player, the goal is disallowed and a goal kick is awarded.
To differentiate between the two types of free kicks, check the referee’s signal; “the referee indicates an indirect free kick by raising the arm above the head; this signal is maintained until the kick has been taken and the ball touches another player, goes out of play or it is clear that a goal cannot be scored directly.” IFAB Direct free kicks will not have such a signal.
A quick note on the offside rule. Offside is not applied to throw-ins and corner kicks but did you know that a player who receives a ball directly from a goal kick cannot be flagged as offside? Take that into account when the opportunity arises to catch a defense napping or counter on an over-committed opponent.
• The goalkeepers’ arms are not included for an offside position
There are many rules to the game of soccer and a fair portion of them apply to the goalkeeper either directly or indirectly. Take some time to better understand different parts of the game and try to find ways to use the rules in your strategy as a player.
I’m still a poor keeper but my experience that day taught me a lot on the role or the goalkeeper and led me to an interest in the rules that apply to the position. Whether you’re a goalkeeper or a field player by trade, understanding these parameters will improve your soccer IQ and assist you in elevating your play.
How can I become a goalie? In order to play any position, it is important to research the rules, requirements, and characteristics of each. To become a goalkeeper, you’ll also need to practice blocking shots, punting, and goal kicks. One more key responsibility of the keeper is to communicate and organize the players in front of them. The goalie should be able to direct the attack as well as the defense due to their perspective on the field.
Can a goalie play offense? Yes — The goalie can play anywhere on the field but can’t touch the ball with their hands outside the penalty area. Some goalies have scored and it’s not uncommon to see goalies join the attack on corner kicks late in the game when their team is down a goal.